CMEonHIV.com is dedicated to providing online CME presentations (slides with voiceover) on HIV/AIDS for healthcare professionals given by local and international experts to keep you up-to-date on the ongoing developments in the field.
Immunotherapy and Vaccinations
The immune system is involved in controlling the replication of HIV. Immunotherapy is proposed as a supplementary treatment to antiretroviral therapy, in order to maintain, restore or favor an immune response against HIV or other infectious agents, and in order to control the levels of CD4+ lymphocytes. Immunotherapy would permit the improvement of immune response in the patient facing HIV infection, as well as simplification or even interruption of antiretroviral treatment. The HIV-infected patient may benefit from vaccine protection against infections, for those infections that are habitually targeted by vaccines, as well as infectious diseases for which he/she is particularly at risk (tuberculosis, pneumococcal infection, Hepatitis B…). However, HIV infection imposes certain precautions (e.g. contraindication of live attenuated vaccines) and requires assessment of the individual patient’s needs.
Summary : The recent estimates of the World Health Organization indicate that more than 30,000,000 of persons are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1). In addition, the number of new infections per day is estimated to more than 15,000 and 95% percent of HIV-1-infected individuals reside in development countries. A number of prevention programmes including specific education, distribution of condoms, and syringes have been effective but have not been able to block world epidemic.
The only hope is the development of a vaccine that should be safe, non-expensive, effective and accessible to the entire world. Since the discovery of HIV-1, e.g. 15 years ago, only a vaccine candidate has reached Phase III clinical efficacy study.
Despite the important advances at the level of both basic and clinical research, there are a number of challenges that we have to face in order to develop an effective and safe vaccine. The type of antiviral immune responses able to confer protection against HIV-1 infection have not been fully delineated as well as it is still unclear what are the critical viral antigens that may induce a protective immune response. Furthermore, the durability and the breadth of the immune responses required to insure protection against the different HIV-1 subtypes are not known. The problems mentioned above will persist until the Phase III clinical studies will not provide information regarding the efficacy of the potential vaccine candidates thus allowing the evaluation of the characteristics of the protective immune response. In the absence of these data, it is critical to develop novel vaccine concepts capable of inducing broad and potent immune responses. In particular, it is going to be important to develop multi-gene vaccines able to induce different types of immune responses directed against different viral proteins.
Therefore, in the absence of the specific knowledge of the type of immune response that should be induced by a vaccine to induce a protective immune response, it is important to consider the development of anti-HIV-1 vaccine candidates capable of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses and systemic and mucosal immunity.
"The Need For A Mucosal HIV Vaccine" Dr. Ken Rosenthal (biography) English - 2001-06-01 - 26 minutes
"Implications of HIV Dynamics for Vaccine Development" Pr. David Ho (biography) English - 2000-04-30 - 35 minutes
"Neutralizing Antibody Induction by Primary Isolate Env" Dr. David Montefiori (biography) English - 2000-04-30 - 33 minutes
"Modelling Preventive and Therapeutic Intervention with Highly Attenuated Poxvirus Vaccines in the SIV251 Macaque Model" Dr. Genoveffa Franchini (biography) English - 2000-04-30 - 40 minutes
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